ESL Game Adult Resource #011 – ‘Oldest’ Koran Fragments Found in Birmingham University

Easy ESL Games has recently partnered with Premier ESL in an effort to bring you the most comprehensive and entertaining lessons possible for your ESL / EFL classroom.  If you like this lesson and would like to see more collaborations be sure to let us know.

 

Level: Pre-Intermediate           

Suitable ages: 13+                

Time: 90 mins

Target Language: -ed and -ing adjectives

ESL Games - Premier ESL koran pic

Teacher’s Notes

Warmer – Image Adjective

In the Student Materials PDF there are 8 images – print and them out. You can either make enough copies and put your class into small groups or just print one copy and hang them up around the class.

Instruct the students to look at the pictures for a few minutes then ask them to think of (or write down) one word to describe each picture.

Elicit several different words from the students – as you have asked them to describe the images – the words you get back will certainly all be adjectives. Usually the common, easier adjectives come first such as; wonderful, beautiful, scary, lovely, etc. This is great to start with because it gets the students thinking of descriptive words.

Once you have elicited several examples for each word, divide the board in two and write:

-ed  |  -ing

Next, ask the students to think of (or write down) an adjective either ending with –ed or –ing to describe each image. Note: images 5 and 8 – focus on the activity, not the people. Image 7 – focus on the boy.

Example answers (in left-right order of images)

  • interesting, intriguing, fascinating, amusing

  • scared, shocked, terrified, horrified

  • confused, perplexed

  • bored, depressed, tired

  • exciting, entertaining, thrilling

  • depressing, boring

  • frightened, scared, shocked, horrified,

  • relaxing, soothing

Elicit the –ed and –ing adjectives from the students and put them up on the board. Then stick the image up on the board next to the chosen adjectives. Make sure you only list adjectives with the correct ending for the picture.

You will end up with images 2, 3, 4 and 7 on the –ed side and images 1, 5, 6 and 8 on the –ing side.

Leave that all up on the board for the moment and move on to the next activity.

Lead-in – Frightened and Frightening Class Survey

In the Student Materials PDF print out a copy of the class survey – you will need one copy for each student.

Instruct them to write the names of two classmates at the top of the page and then proceed in asking the 10 pre-set questions to those students they have named.

There are four blank spaces below – leave those for now.

This is a reasonably easy activity so the students should be able to perform it with ease; however, stay alert and help out where needed.

The theory of doing these activities back-to-back is to engage the students into discovering the rules for themselves. This is a much better way for students to learn than by simply being told the rule (only for them to forget it ten minutes later).

Once the students have asked their classmates the ten questions, elicit their answers in full sentence form – it might help to give an example first. Get one of the students to ask you.

e.g.      Question from survey: Name two things you are frightened of?

            Answer: Spiders and the dark.

            Full sentence: Mr Teacher is frightened of spiders and the dark.

Write some of the best examples up on the board under the correct –ed or –ing side

e.g.      The most relaxing place Jack has ever been to is his Uncle’s house in the country.

            Anne is interested in K-Pop and Harry Potter books.

Explanation of the Rules

Given all the information you have elicited from the students the rules should be fairly obvious; however, it’s time to check that they understand.

Using the images which are still up on the board; ask the class a series of questions such as;

  • What picture is interesting? The tree shaped like a human’s head.

  • Which activity looks exciting? Riding on the roller-coaster

  • Which activity is relaxing? Listening to music

  • Who is frightened of the camel? The boy in the car

  • Who looks confused? The baby

Elicit from the students when do we use the –ed adjectives.

-ed adjectives are used to talk about a person’s feelings (emotions) or opinions. (note: They can also be used to talk about animals – Our Cat is scared of loud noises)
Elicit from the students when do we use the –ing adjectives.
-ing adjectives are used to describe things, people, places, activities, events, etc.

If required, just to double check, put a few simple sentences up on the board

  • Christmas is excited/exciting because we get lots of presents.

  • Ronald is always bored/boring in Maths class.

  • My job is tired/tiring.

  • I was shocked/shocking when I heard the news.

Elicit the answers from these so all the students understand fully.

Vocabulary Building

In the Student Materials PDF, print out the empty vocabulary table (one for each student) and the vocabulary list (just one copy).

Cut the vocabulary list up into strips – keeping the two words together (amused-amusing).

Put the students in pairs and hand out one pair of words to each pair of students. Tell them not to show their words to the other students.

Instruct them that you are going to play ‘Charades/miming game’. Give them a moment to think of a mime they can perform for their given vocabulary. If any students do not understand their words – give them an explanation – quietly.

Invite one pair of students at a time to perform their charade/mime and the other students have to guess.

Once the correct answers have been guessed, inform the students to write the vocabulary down in their table.

After all the charades have been performed, elicit to see if the students know any more –ed / -ing adjectives. Write these down as well.

Activate 1 – Class Survey Completion

Go back to the class survey and instruct the students to write four our their own questions in the spaces provided. Once written, let them ask their questions to the students.

As always, elicit answers to check comprehension of the target language.

Reading – Oldest Koran Fragments Found in Birmingham University

Print out the reading passage from the Student Materials PDF. The passage has been divided in to two halves (student A and student B)

Engage the students with a few pre-reading questions such as;

  • Who knows what the Koran is?

  • Where do you think the oldest Koran is?

Note: due to the sensitive nature of religion, it is wise not to go into too much depth with the questions.

Instruct student A to read the first half to his partner, while listening student B should write down all the –ed / -ing adjectives he/she hears and then reverse roles once the first is finished.

When the students have finishing reading to each other have them work together to make sure they have found all the required adjectives – there ten in total.

Copy of reading passage

‘Oldest’ Koran fragments found in Birmingham University

What may be the world’s oldest fragments of the Koran have been found by the University of Birmingham.

Radiocarbon dating found the manuscript to be at least 1,370 years old, making it among the earliest in existence.

The pages of the Muslim holy text had remained unrecognised in the university library for almost a century.

The British Library’s expert on such manuscripts, Dr Muhammad Isa Waley, said, “this is an exciting discovery and Muslims the world over would be thrilled.”

He added that this is probably the most interesting piece in the library now and we are so pleased to have found it; however, we are mystified about how it remained undiscovered for so long.

When a PhD researcher looked more closely at these pages it was decided to carry out a radiocarbon dating test and the results were “startling”.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The university’s director of special collections, Susan Worrall, said researchers were amazed when they discovered its true age.

“Finding out we had one of the oldest fragments of the Koran in the whole world has been fantastically amazing.”

These tests provide a range of dates, showing that, with a probability of more than 95%, the parchment was from between 568 and 645.

“The person who actually wrote it could well have known the Prophet Muhammad. He would have seen him probably, he would maybe have heard him preach. He may have known him personally – and that really is quite a thought to conjure with,” he says.

Prof Thomas says that some of the passages of the Koran were written down on parchment, stone, palm leaves and the shoulder blades of camels – and a final version, collected in book form, was completed in about 650. The detail and quality is fascinating and I felt. captivated just by looking at it.

Activate 2 – Post Reading

Instruct the students to write sentences using the –ed / -ing adjectives.

Go through the first one on the board:

  • exciting

Elicit what/who is exciting? Discovering the oldest koran

Invite a student to put this into a sentence; for example:

Dr Muhammad Isa Waley said that this is an exciting discovery.

Let the students continue forming the sentences in their pairs.

Check answers as a whole class but be aware there are several possible ways of wording the same answers, so all the students might have differing answers but they could all be correct.

Activate 3 – Language Sprint

To reinforce the target language, this is a great activity with I found on www.easyeslgames.com . I have slightly adapted it to fit this lesson. To view the original click here.

How to Play:

1.    Divide your class into pairs.

2.    The goal in to use the target language from their vocabulary list as many times as possible within a minute.

3.    Have one partner use the language target as many times as possible within a minute without repeating any of the same activities/events/people/etc.

4.    The other partner simply has to tally points and make sure there’s no repetition.

5.    When the timer sounds. Tally the points.

6.    Have the partners switch roles and repeat steps 3-5.

7.    Combine both totals and the pair with the highest combined total is the winner.

8.    To make the game more difficult you can add a negative to the target language or make it topic based.

For more great activities like this one, check out www.easyeslgames.com

Cooler – Guess Who?

Instruct the students to write 3 sentences about themselves and/or their family and friends using the target language of the lesson.

e.g      I am interested in water sports.

            I think horror films are frightening.

            My best friend is scared of rats.

Once all complete, fold them up and put in a hat and one-by-one let students pick one and read them out – changing ‘I’ for ‘This person’ and altering the verb.

e.g      This person is interested in water sports.

            This person thinks horror films are frightening.

            This person’s best friend is scared of rats.

Let the students have fun guessing who is who.

Have fun and happy teaching – see you all next week!

‘Engage – Excite – Enjoy’ The Premier ESL way!

Easy ESL Games has recently partnered with Premier ESL in an effort to bring you the most comprehensive and entertaining lessons possible for your ESL / EFL classroom.  If you like this lesson and would like to see more collaborations be sure to let us know.